|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2003|
|Authors||Constable, F, Gibb, KS, Symons, RH|
|Pagination||267 - 276|
|Keywords||amplification, australian grapevine yellows, disease detection and diagnosis, dna, grapevine, phytoplasma, polymerase chain reaction|
The distribution and persistence of phytoplasmas were determined in Australian grapevines. Phytoplasmas could be detected using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from shoots, cordons, trunks and roots throughout the year, and phytoplasmas appear to persistently infect Australian grapevines from year to year. Phytoplasmas were not always detected in samples from the same sampling area from one sampling period to the next. Phytoplasma detection by PCR was improved by sampling from shoots, cordons and trunks, especially during October (early spring). The diseases expressed by the 20 grapevines used in the distribution and persistence studies were monitored. Australian grapevine yellows disease (AGY) was expressed by 17/20 grapevines at some time during the study, whilst only 4/20 and 15/20 grapevines expressed restricted growth disease (RG) and late season leaf curl disease (LSLC), respectively. All grapevines with RG and LSLC also had AGY. The three diseases were persistently expressed in some grapevines and remission of disease was observed in others. The results of PCR detection in the same grapevines indicated that phytoplasmas were more frequently detected in AGY-affected grapevines that also expressed RG and LSLC compared with grapevines expressing AGY alone. Phytoplasmas were detected in symptomless plant material but less frequently compared with AGY-affected material.